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Resources & References

Hazing Resources
HazingPrevention.Org is a newly formed national organization dedicated to providing current information related to hazing and hazing prevention to individuals and organizations. Resources offered on their website include, information about what you can do, links to videos, personal stories, and newsletters. provides accurate, up-to-date hazing information for students, parents, and educators. There are informative articles on all forms of types of hazing, including high school, military, athletic and fraternity/sorority hazing.

The National Collaborative for Hazing Research and Prevention
The NCHRP engages in research, information-sharing, and the development and dissemination of evidence-based hazing prevention and intervention strategies. Review the newly released "Initial Findings of the National Study of Student Hazing: Examing and Transforming Campus Hazing Cultures" linked from their website.

Inside Hazing: Understanding Hazardous Hazing
Provides practical information on all aspects of hazing as well as the theoretical perspective of Susan Lipkins, Ph.D., author of "Preventing Hazing: How Parents, Teachers, and Coaches Can Stop the Violence, Harassment, and Humiliation."

Unofficial Clearinghouse to Track Hazing Deaths and Incidents
Comprised by one of the nation's leading experts on hazing, Hank Nuwer, this website compiles hazing new stories and reports on hazing incidents.

Initiation Rites in American High Schools: A National Survey
Published by Alfred University in August of 2000, this study of high school students around the United States illustrates the prevalence and the nature of hazing.


Allan, E.J. (2004).  Hazing and Gender: Analyzing the Obvious.  In Nuwer, H. (Ed.), The hazing reader (pp. 275-294). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Berkowitz, A. D. (Ed.). (1994) Men and rape. Theory, research and prevention programs in higher education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Boglioli, L. R., & Taff, M. L. (1995). Death by fraternity hazing. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 16(1), 42-44.

Campo, S., Poulos, G. & Sipple, J. (2005). Prevalence and Profiling: Hazing Among College Students and Points of Intervention. American Journal of Health Behavior, 29(2), 137-149.

Cokley, K., Miller, K., Cunningham, D., Motoike, J., King, A. & Awad, G. (2001). Developing an instrument to assess college students' attitudes toward pledging and hazing in Greek letter organizations. College Student Journal, 35(3), 451-456.

Finkel, M. A. (2002). Traumatic injuries caused by hazing practices. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 20(3), 228-233.

Hollmann, B. (2002). Hazing: Hidden campus crime. New Directions for Student Services, 99,11.

Janis, I. L. (1997). Groupthink. In R. P. Vecchio (Ed.), Leadership: Understanding the dynamics of power and influence in organizations. (pp. 163-176). Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

Jones, R. L. (2000). The historical significance of sacrificial ritual: Understanding violence in the modern black fraternity pledge process. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 24(2), 112-124.

Kimbrough, W. (2003). Black Greek 101: The culture, customs, and challenges of Black fraternities and sororities. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.

Land, B. (2004). Goat: A memoir. Random House: New York.

Lipkins, Susan (2006). Preventing Hazing: How Parents, Teachers and Coaches Can Stop the violence, Harassment and Humiliation. Jossey Bass Wiley.

Lodewijkx, H., & Syroit, J. (1997). Severity of initiation revisited: Does severity of initiation increase attractiveness in real groups? European Journal of Social Psychology, 27(3), 275-300.

Lodewijkx, H., & Syroit, J. (2001). Affiliation during naturalistic severe and mild initiations: Some further evidence against the severity-attraction hypothesis. Current Research in Social Psychology, 6(7), 90-107.

Martin, R. and Davids, K. (1995) The effects of group development techniques on a professional athletic team. Journal of Social Psychology: 135(4), 533- 535.

Milgram, S. (1974). Obedience to authority: An experimental view. New York: Harper and Row.

Nuwer, H. (1990). Broken pledges: The deadly rite of hazing. Atlanta, GA: Longstreet Press.

Nuwer, H. (2000). High school hazing: When rites become wrongs. Franklin Watts: New York.

Nuwer, H. (2001). Wrongs of passage: Fraternities, sororities, hazing and binge drinking. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Nuwer, H. (2004). The hazing reader. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Sweet, S. (1999). Understanding fraternity hazing: Insights from symbolic interactionist theory. Journal of College Student Development, 40(4), 355- 363.

Zimbardo, P. G. (1973). On the ethics of human intervention on human psychological research with special references to the Stanford prison experiment.

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